Glaucoma is a disease in which there is an increase in the pressure of the eye and ends up causing a serious affect on the optic nerve.
In its classification there are four major groups:
1- Open-angel glaucoma: it is the most common. There is a gradual increase in the intraocular pressure that the person is not able to notice. It does not give any inconvenience or symptom.
2- Closed-angle glaucoma: aqueous humour is a fluid from the inside that is created in the ciliary processes, passes through the pupil and it is eliminated in the trabecular mesh, which is between the cornea and iris. If at some point on the way, the aqueous humour is obstructed, then it accumulates and makes the pressure of the eye rise quickly and painfully. It is a real emergency. If person do not act immediately, can lose sight.
3- Secondary galucoma: there are several causes, such as the use of certain medications (cortisone), pseudoexfoliation, pigmentary dispersion, neovascular, inflammatory, traumatic, ...
4- Congenital glaucoma: it is usually hereditary and is present at birth.
Usually, glaucoma does not give any symptoms (except in the closed angle). This is very dangerous because if it is not diagnosed and treated, the disease is progressing. Visual acuity is preserved, but the visual field is slowly and gradually decreasing, without being aware of the impact. In advanced stages, they notice that they can´t see the steps of stairs, they collide with the walls because they lose part of the peripheral visual field. In the end, the vision is lost.
Simulated image of the vision of a person without glaucoma
Simulated image of the vision of a person with advanced glaucoma
Fortunately, there are many pharmacological and surgical treatments in the present, becoming a chronic disease.
Follow-up report of a person with glaucoma. Incidence of upper and lower fibers is observed